خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون
شناسه محصول: 2465

خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون به صورت جزوه ی کامل آماده چاپ شامل 48 صفحه به صورت فایل pdf قرار گرفته است.

قیمت این کتاب در بازار ایران بین ۷۰ تا ۱۰۰ هزارتومان و در بازار بین الملیی بین ۱۲ تا ۷۰ دلار است که باتوجه به نیاز در تخفیف استثنائی با قیمت ۱۷.۵۰۰ تومان برای شما عزیزان قابل استفاده است.

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شما با مطالعه خلاصه کتاب داگلاس براون میتوانید به بیش از ۱۰ سوال از آزمون کارشناسی ارشد آموزش زبان پاسخ دهید.

خلاصه ی ۴ صفحه ی اول خلاصه ی خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون

Summary of the book Principles of Language Learning and Teaching by Douglas Brown

Introduction

Greetings! In this paper we will elaborate on the bold and important points of Douglas Brown’s Principles of Language Learning and Teaching book, chapter by chapter, and with examples as more as we could. In addition, some more points of hand-written paper of BA course are added, plus some related question of MA tests. We hope it would be useful and beneficial for you. If it is possible, let us know what you think about this paper. Please for support only buy from https://sadeto.com/user/donenglish/.

خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون

Chapter One: Language, Learning, and Teaching

کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون
کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون
  1. Language
  2. According to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate dictionary language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings.
  3. Steven Pinker defines language a complex specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently.
  4. Learning
  5. Learning is acquiring knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction.
  6. An educational psychologist would define learning even more succinctly as “a change in an individual caused by experience”.
  7. Learning is
  8. acquisition or “adding”,
  9. the retention of information or skills,
  10. the involvement of storage systems, memory, and cognitive organization,
  11. the application of active, conscious focus, and subconscious attention,
  12. relatively permanent but subject to forgetting,
  13. the result of practice, perhaps reinforced practice,
  14. and a change in behavior.
  15. Teaching
  16. Teaching, which is implied in the first definition of learning, may be defined as “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand”.
  17. Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling a person to learn, and setting conditions for learning.
  18. Generative-transformational linguistics
  19. Description of language or language acquisition, originally, associated with Noam Chomsky, that views language as a system of principled rules, independent of any particular language, that governs its use; human language forms are thus “generated” by these rules and “transformed” through conventional constraints.
  20. Descriptive adequacy
  21. Satisfying scientific or empirical principles for describing a phenomenon such as language.
  22. Performance
  23. One’s actual “doing” of language in the form of speaking and writing (production) and listening and reading (comprehension).
  24. Competence
  25. One’s underlying knowledge of a system, event, or fact; the unobservable ability to perform language.
  26. Constructivism
  27. The integration of various paradigms with an emphasis on social interaction and the discovery, or construction, of meaning.
  28. Cognitive constructivism
  29. A branch of constructivism that emphasizes the importance of individual learners constructing their own representation of reality.
  30. The champion of cognitive constructivism is Jean Piaget, who advocated the view that “Learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it their own”.
  31. Social constructivism
  32. A branch of constructivism that emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning in constructing both cognitive and emotional images of reality.
  33. The champion of social constructivism is Lev Vygotsky, who advocated the view that “children’s thinking and meaning-making is socially constructed and emerges out of their social interactions with their environment”.
  34. One of the most popular concepts advanced by Vygotsky was the notion of a zone of proximal development (ZPD): the distance between learners’ existing developmental state and their potential development. Put another way, the ZPD encompasses task that a learner has not yet learned but is capable of learning with appropriate stimuli.
  35. Three perspectives on second language acquisition
School of ThoughtTypical Themes
Structural linguistics/Behavioral psychologyDescription, observable performance, scientific method, conditioning, reinforcement
Generative linguistics/Cognitive psychologyAcquisition, innateness, language competence, deep structure, inter-language, systematicity, variability
ConstructivismInteractive discourse, sociocultural factors, construction of identity, ZPD, cooperative learning, discovery learning
خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون

خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون

  1. Classical method
  2. A language teaching method in which the focus is on the grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary and other language forms, translation of texts, and performing written exercises.
  3. Grammar Translation Method (GTM)
  4. A language teaching method in which the central focus is on grammatical rules, paradigms, and vocabulary memorization as the basis for translating from one language to another.
  5. Vocabulary, grammar, and translation are important. There is no principle in this method because of lack of interaction. [2]
  6. Audio-Lingual Method (ALM)
  7. A language teaching method, popular in the 1950s, that placed an extremely strong emphasis on oral production, pattern drills, and conditioning through repetition.
  8. Direct Method (DM)
  9. A language teaching method popular in the early twentieth century that emphasizes direct target language use, oral communication skills, and inductive grammar, without resource to translation from the first language.
  10. Like children, learning directly is considered. It is a weak method because it is too slow. [2]
  11. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
  12. An approach to language teaching methodology that emphasizes authenticity, interaction, student-centered learning, task based activities, and communication for real-world, meaningful purposes.
  13. Method
  14. A coherent, prescribed group of activities and techniques for language teaching, unified by a homogeneous set of principles or foundations; sometimes proclaimed to be suitable for all foreign language teaching contexts.
  15. Approach
  16. A unified but broadly based theoretical position about the nature of language and of language learning and teaching that forms the basis of methodology in the language classroom.

Chapter Two: First Language Acquisition

خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون

  1. Operant conditioning
  2. Conditioning in which an organism (in the case of language acquisition, a human being) emits a response (an utterance, for example), or operant, without necessarily observable stimuli; that operant is maintained (learned) by reinforcement.
  3.         Nativist
  4. A school of thought that rests on the assertion that language acquisition is innately (genetically) determined, and that human beings are therefore predisposed to a systematic perception of language.
  5. Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
  6. An innate, metaphorical “mechanism” in young children’s brains that predisposes them to acquire language.
  7. David McNeil described the LAD as consisting of four innate linguistic properties: 1- the ability to distinguish speech sounds from other sounds in the environment; 2- the ability to organize linguistic data into various classes that can later be defined; 3- knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system is possible and that other kinds are not; 4- the ability to engage in constant evaluation of the developing linguistic system so as to construct the simplest possible system out of the available linguistic input.
  8. Universal Grammar (UG)
  9. A system of linguistic rules that hypothetically apply to all human languages.
  10. Much of current UG research is centered around what have come to be known as principles and parameters. There are common systems or features in all human languages these features are called principles; such as word order. Differences in how principles are set are called parameters; such as different word-orders for two different languages (SOV and SVO). [۲]
  11. Pivot grammar
  12. The early grammars of child language.
  13. Parallel distributed processing
  14. The receiving, storing, or recalling of information at several levels of attention simultaneously.
  15.         Connectionism

Summary of the book Principles of Language Learning and Teaching by Douglas Brown

خلاصه ی کتاب اصول یادگیری و آموزش زبان اثر داگلاس براون

مطالب بالا چند صفحه از مطالب کتاب می باشد برای دانلود این کتاب ابتدا باید این کتاب را خریداری کنید و لینک دانلود پس از خرید و پرداخت فعال شده و توسط پیامک، ایمیل و واتس آپ برای شما ارسال میشود آپ برای شما ارسال میشود

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اندازه 2مگابایت
فرمت pdf
زبان انگلیسی
برگزارکننده DonEnglish
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